This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 320294

EU

Third Country Nationals: included or excluded?

The establishment of EU citizenship in 1992 entailed the establishment of the ‘Third Country National’ (TCN). As citizens of EU member states became EU insiders so citizens of non-EU states were turned into EU outsiders. The first deliverable of Work Package 10 explores the complex dynamics of insiders and outsiders, and their mutual dependence. For inclusion and exclusion are in practice seldom binaries, but marked by differential inclusion and exclusion: EU nationals residing in an EU state of which they are not a citizen are not totally included – and importantly, neither, necessarily, are nationals, Roma people for instance may have formal national citizenship but may be excluded in multiple ways. Neither are TCNs totally excluded: TCNs with legal permanent residence can enjoy many of the rights of citizens of the state where they reside (though not rights as EU nationals) and ‘Accession state nationals’ sit between EU nationals and TCNs. There are multiple axes of in/exclusion. WP10 focuses on three intersecting axes: mobility, naturalisation, and welfare benefits to explore the ways in which ‘citizenship’ is both a legal and a normative status. The six states under consideration (Croatia, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain, Israel and the UK), enable us to consider EU, new member and non-EU states, states with different immigration and citizenship histories, and a range of different welfare regimes. It is not simply that the citizen is deserving and the migrant undeserving, but that there are (un)deserving citizens and (un)deserving migrants.

**The report will be available under the publications section of the bEUcitizen website from August 4, 2014.**