This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 320294

EU

The transposition of EU guidelines and directives (Deliverable 9.1)

The central aim of this deliverable is to identify possible trends EU member states’ social policies  in relation to a number of important citizenship issues. The broader objective of WP9 is to study the relationship between the effects of discrepancies between respective civil, political, social, and economic citizenship rights and obligations of European and non-European citizens as family members moving across borders. Within this project, we have identified four themes to focus on: care for the elderly, non-national care workers, the reproductive rights of family members and mobile youth. For this deliverable, we have evaluated (i) the 2013 National Reform Programmes of those 23 member states that had National Reform Programmes available and in the English language (exceptions include France, Portugal and Romania) and (ii) the 2014 National Reform Programmes for Croatia and Ireland who did not have a 2013 document. The analytic perspective used in this evaluation has been the policy-scientific approach of Leeuw (2003).

The current deliverable contains a first short description of EU guidelines and a descriptive summary of member state discourses on these four themes. Utrecht University has coordinated the task and one partner has contributed by delivering an analysis of the 2014 Croatian National Reform Programme. The working process included several steps:

  • Desk top research to select relevant themes for the analysis.
  • Reading and coding all of the Europe 2020 documents and 2013 National Reform Programmes for any information on care for the elderly, non-national care workers, reproductive rights of men and women (including migrants) and mobile youth.
  • Coding each of these themes into relevant sub-themes related to citizenship rights.
  • A draft version of this report was discussed at the bEUcitizen conference in Istanbul, Turkey in late June/early July 2014. WP9 members  provided comments on this report at that stage.

Additional data was collected for Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 and produced its first National Reform Programme in 2014. Additional data was collected for Ireland, who had not produced a 2013 National Reform Programme. The 2014 National Reform Programmes of both Croatia and Ireland are included here.

 

Download the full report: Deliverable 9.1_report-NRPs

 

Rights and obligations of citizens and non-citizens in selected countries (Deliverable 10.1)

This report derives from the work of partners involved in Work Package 10 of the FP7 programme bEUcitizen:  Utrecht University (The Netherlands); the University of Zagreb (Croatia); University College Dublin (Ireland); the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel); the University of Oviedo (Spain) and the London School of Economics and the University of Oxford (UK).  The report explores the complex dynamics of insiders and outsiders, and their mutual dependence. For inclusion and exclusion are in practice seldom binaries, but marked by shades of difference, by differential inclusion and exclusion. WP10 focuses on the three key axes of mobility, naturalisation, and welfare benefits, all of which intersect to explore the ways in which ‘citizenship’ is both a legal and a normative status, that is, how formal in/exclusion is related to ideas of deservingness and ‘Good Citizenship’. This report explores the interactions of these axes and the differential in/exclusions that result via the six states under study, which enable us to examine EU15 (Ireland, Netherlands, UK, and Spain as a Southern EU state), new member (Croatia) and non-EU (Israel) states.

 

Access to state territory (mobility).

In EU member states hierarchies of entry are dependent upon citizenship status, wealth or skills except for those considered part of the diaspora understood as shared ethnicity/common descent (Croatia, Spain, Ireland), or religion (Israel: Law of Return). There is an evident move towards a knowledge-based economy and attracting the ‘brightest and the best’ across the EU, with resultant restricted access for family migration and lower skilled workers. Thus, access revolves around the management of the mobility of ‘the poor’, except where co-ethnicity/ religion provides access to ‘poor’ but in some cases this is curtailed by EU membership.

 

Access to citizenship (naturalisation)

Increasingly, in what has been termed the commodification of citizenship, citizenship is premised upon wealth and income, under the guise of ‘integration’. However, there is a difference between those for whom naturalisation is a prize and those for whom it is an entitlement. For those whose access to naturalisation is not shaped by ethnicity/diaspora, naturalisation is a ‘privilege’. In contrast, those whose access is shaped by ethnicity/diaspora often have facilitated naturalisation processes. Thus preferential access to citizenship is evident for some groups. Formal citizenship is an acknowledgment of a prior community.

 

Access to Social Security

European citizenship not only reinforces but extends the worker-citizen model: Work (effective and genuine) is increasingly a central requirement to access welfare for both citizens and EEA, save for those whose access is shaped by ethnicity/diaspora.

 

Conclusions

Differential inclusion and exclusion: EU nationals residing in an EU state of which they are not a citizen are not totally included – but, neither, necessarily, are nationals (e.g. Roma). Neither are TCNs totally excluded: e.g. TCNs with legal permanent residence have many of the rights of citizens (though not rights as EU nationals). A clear disjuncture between state and nation: for nations large populations are good and lend credibility; for states large populations are expensive. Concerns about the instrumental use of EU citizenship (access to work and benefits) have consequences for member states’ national social security and naturalisation policies.

 

Download the full report:

D10.1 Report on the rights and obligations of citizens and non-citizens in selected countries.