This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 320294

EU

WP11 Forward looking activities

The evolution of European citizenship is a long-term process and changes equally within the legal and institutional framework as within citizenship practice. Stimulating and guiding this development requires concerted actions and lasting attention. Furthermore, these actions take place in a dynamic context and the effects will be influenced by socioeconomic and socio-cultural developments in society. This means that there is a need not only for a shared vision on European citizenship, but also for the extension of a repertoire of policy action and institutional reform to stimulate a development in that direction under different and changing circumstances. In the forwardlooking activities (WP11) the research findings will be connected to the main challenge underlying this project: to overcome and remove barriers for the exercising of EU citizenship and to stimulate social change towards active EU citizenship. The objective is therefore to identify and broaden the scope for future policy actions at both EU and member states level and within academia, law, government and civil society.
The comparative analysis of driving and inhibiting forces for exercising citizenship in the different work packages will be an important source for the forward-looking activities. In order to enhance the impact and use of research findings generated within bEUcitizen, it is important to receive feedback from high-level policy makers as well as from opinion leaders in politics, civil society and the media. Special attention will be paid to the relationship between European citizenship and the diversity in citizenship on the national level. Stimulating European citizenship takes place at various levels: At the level of the EU as a whole, at the level of the Member States and, especially, at the level of local communities. Complementary and competitive relations between European and national citizenship are likely to coexist. This implies that in thinking about policies and institutions, the context in which they are implemented matters. ‘One size fits all’ strategies that work will be rare.
It is therefore necessary to initiate and to work along four parallel lines that ensure impact beyond the end date of bEUcitizen. Important in each of these lines is the involvement of policy makers, citizens’ representatives and civil society organisations, both at EU and Member States level, and activities that are directed at and aimed at raising awareness among citizens.
The first line is to safeguard a continuation of attention in academic and applied research, especially in the field of monitoring and forecasting, to the change, evolution of and barriers to European citizenship. Monitoring and forecasting have a longstanding tradition in policy research institutes for the EU and national governments. Development tools based on our findings have to suit their practices. The same applies, as a second line, to the objective of developing practical tools for the
assessment of the impact on citizenship of new (EU and national) legislation and policies (Renda 2006; Toner 2006).
A third line will focus more on activating citizens to exercise their rights and engage in different forms of political participation and policymaking. Here a specific age group will be addressed: young people between the ages of 14 and 16. Using the research’s outcomes and building on both the vested, mostly national, traditions of education for citizenship and more recent initiatives (e.g. euroacademy online), teaching packages will be developed that focus on European citizenship (Reeher and Cammarano 1997; Lawton, Gairns and Gardner 2000; Ibánez-Martín and Jover 2002).
The fourth and last line of forward-looking activities will be designing and debating contrasting future scenarios under the heading ‘EU citizenship 2030’ in relation to national citizenship. Although scenarios for Europe have been drawn up in the past and may function as a source of inspiration, most do not address European citizenship from this perspective (Labohm, Rood and Van Staden 1998; Bertrand, Michalski and Pench 1999; De Mooij and Tang 2003). To this end, this WP will engage representatives from all work packages in a reflection exercise during the final project phase on establishing scenarios for the medium-term development of EU citizenship practice and will involve civil society organisations and policy practitioners in the debate.

References
– Bertrand, G., Michalski, A. and L.R. Pench (1999), Scenarios Europe 2010. Five possible futures for Europe (Brussels: EC Forward Studies Unit)
– De Mooij, R. and P. Tang (2003), Four futures of Europe (The Hague: CPB) Proposal No. 3202941 bEUcitizen
– Ibánez-Martín, J.A. and G. Jover (eds) (2002), Education in Europe. Policies and politics (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers)
– Labohm, H., Rood, J. and A. van Staden (1998), Europe on the threshold of the 21st century: five scenarios (The Hague: Clingendael Institute)
– Lawton, D., Gairns. J. and R. Gardner (2000), Education for Citizenship (London: Continuum)
– Reeher, G. and J. Cammarano (eds.) (1997), Education for Citizenship. Ideas and innovations in political learning (Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield)
– Renda, A. (2006), Impact Assessment in the EU. The State of the Art and the Art of the State (Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies)
– Toner, H. (2006), ‘Impact Assessments and Fundamental Rights Protection in EU Law’ European Law Review (3), 316 – 341