WP10 Balancing Citizenship of ‘Insiders’ and ‘Outsiders’
Central to the emergence of European citizenship has been the reconstruction of the boundaries of citizenship and its relationship to nation states, welfare states and labour markets. This has involved changing institutional relations at the interstate level with regard to the legal construction of EU citizens (and different categories of EU citizens, including A8 and A2 nationals) and non-EU citizens, and the associated rights of citizenship. At the same time, at the level of individual member states’ citizenship policies and immigration controls, there has been a continuing diversification of legal statuses and associated rights, not simply between citizens and non-citizens of those states, but also among non-citizens (such as work permit holders, asylum seekers, students).
There has been some theorising concerning immigration controls and citizenship policies as constructive of certain types of social and employment relations (Anderson, 2010; De Genova, 2002; Bosniak, 2006; Ngai, 2005), but this has not been particularly well developed empirically. There tended to be ‘a now you see it, now you don’t analysis’ of immigration controls, coming to the fore in matters of illegality and vulnerability, when they are used as a critical explanatory variable for abusive and exploitative conditions, but they are often overlooked as structural features impacting legal migrants’ relationships to labour markets. As a result, the ways in which migrants are or are not permitted access to labour markets and welfare states, and how this affects their labour market and life choices in the receiving States, can be ignored.
Moreover, while attempts have been undertaken to consider how ‘the migrant’ is for the most part a legal creation (rather than, as is commonly imagined, regulated by law), ‘the worker’ is also created in this manner and the law is critical in outlining the boundaries of markets as well as of states (Zatz, 2008). There has been no examination of the ways in which these two work together, though Weicht (2010; 2011) and Anderson (2013 forthcoming) have opened the debate by considering the social relations surrounding work in private households. This could fruitfully be taken forward by comparison with the situation of citizens who are subject to ‘workfare’, which is not subject to the usual employment protections because it is not constituted as a market relation. In other words, the borders of markets, of welfare and of states, are volatile rather than fixed, and the notion of insiders and outsiders (troubled as they are) are revealed to not merely be a binary national/non-national divide and citizenship is permanently under construction. The blurring of these borders, involving processes of ‘marketisation’ within European welfare states, have likewise brought to the fore conflicting dynamics in the reconstruction of economic and social rights. These tensions concern, on the one hand, emphasis on the rights of individual ‘consumers’ of welfare provisions to services that are responsive to their needs and preferences (in the context of market reforms to welfare states), and on the other, the rights and obligations of work for citizens and non-citizens in low-wage labour markets (Shutes 2011; Shutes 2012; Shutes and Walsh 2012). These dynamics point to the importance of the comparative analysis of the interactions between the restructuring of labour markets and welfare states, citizenship and immigration, across and within European states.
WP10 focuses on the construction of the boundaries of the rights to ‘work’ and ‘welfare’ for specific categories of citizens and non-citizens who are excluded from the economic and social rights of citizenship. It will examine the increasingly complex institutional framework through which rights (and obligations) within welfare states and labour markets are stratified among formal citizens as well as between citizens and non-citizens. WP10 therefore complements WP 5 (economic rights) and 6 (social rights) by focusing in depth on the interactions between immigration controls and citizenship policies, labour markets and welfare states, the conflicting processes that those interactions entail and the implications for rethinking rights-based approaches to work and welfare for citizens and non- citizens.
‐ Anderson, B. (2010), ‘Migration, immigration controls and precarious labour’, Work, Employment and Society, 24: 300-317
‐ Anderson, B. (2013 forthcoming), Us and Them? The dangerous politics of immigration controls (Oxford: OUP)
‐ Bosniak, L. (2006), The Citizen and the Alien: dilemmas of contemporary membership (Princeton: Princeton University Press)
‐ De Genova, N. (2002), ‘Migrant illegality and deportability in everyday life’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 31:419-447
‐ Ngai, M. (2005), Impossible subjects: illegal aliens and the making of modern America (Princeton: Princeton University Press)
‐ Shutes, I. (2011), ‘Welfare-to-Work and the responsiveness of employment providers to the needs of refugees’, Journal of Social Policy, 40:557-574
‐ Shutes, I. (2012), ‘The employment of migrant workers in long-term care: dynamics of choice and control’, Journal of Social Policy , 41:43-59
‐ Shutes, I. and Walsh, K. (2012), ‘Negotiating user preferences, discrimination and demand for migrant labour in long-term care’, Social Politics (published online Jan 19, 2012)
‐ Weicht, B (2011), ‘Embracing dependency: rethinking (in)dependence in the discourse of care’, The Sociological Review, 58:205-224
‐ Weicht, B (2010), ‘Embodying the ideal carer: the Austrian discourse on migrant carers’, International Journal of Ageing and Later Life, 5:17-52
‐ Zatz, N. (2008), ‘Working at the boundaries of markets: prison labor and the economic dimension of employment relationships’, Vanderbilt Law Review, 61:857-958