MOBILITY AND CITIZENSHIP IN EUROPE: FROM THE WORKER-CITIZEN TO INCLUSIVE EUROPEAN UNION CITIZENSHIP
Policy scenarios and recommendations from bEUcitizen, a research project on the barriers to realise and exercise citizenship rights by European Union citizens
Bridget Anderson, Isabel Shutes & Sarah Walker
Drawing on research conducted during the project, this policy brief examines the current status of mobility and access to rights of residence for European Union citizens and non-European Union citizens. The establishment of European Union citizenship in 1992 entailed the establishment of both the European Union citizen and the ‘Third Country National’ (the non- European Union citizen). As citizens of European Union member states became European Union insiders, so citizens of non-European Union states were turned into European Union outsiders. However, inclusion and exclusion are, in practice, seldom binaries but marked by shades of difference. Those holding the nationality of a member state may, in principle, all be citizens of the European Union. But they are differentially included in terms of their access to rights under European Union law, including rights to move and reside freely across the member states.1 Similarly, non-European Union citizens are residence in a member state, on which basis they can enjoy many of the rights of citizens of that state (though not rights as European Union citizens).
This policy brief focuses on the relationship between citizenship and work. Specifically, it highlights the ways in which mobility and access to rights of residence for European Union citizens and non-European Union citizens is controlled in relation to work and self-sufficiency. This has implications for inequalities between particular groups in terms of their relative inclusion within the labour market, and thus their access to citizenship and residence rights. But it also has much wider implications regarding the extent to which European Union citizenship serves to reinforce divisions and inequalities among Europe’s populations or to promote greater solidarity.
First, we consider the ways in which work is framed as a right and/or an obligation for European Union and non-European Union citizens in terms of their mobility and access to rights of residence in European Union member states. We highlight the ways in which the ‘worker-citizen’ model underpinning citizenship in Europe establishes inequalities among European Union citizens and among non-European Union citizens in terms of their relationship to the labour market, placing some groups at greater risk of exclusion from the rights and protections of European citizenship. Second, we consider two possible policy scenarios as regards the development of a more or less inclusionary European Union citizenship.
Please click HERE to download the policy brief